ISSN 2226-4701 (Print)
ISSN 2410-3713 (Online)

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Journal Secretariat
Botanica Pacifica
Botanical Garden-Institute
Makovskii Str. 142
Vladivostok 690024 RUSSIA

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Botanica Pacifica
A journal of plant science and conservation

Instructions to authors

Scope and Aims of the Journal

Botanica Pacifica (BP) publishes peer-reviewed, significant research of interest to a wide audience of plant scientists in all areas of plant biology (structure, function, development, diversity, genetics, evolution, systematics), all levels of organization (molecular to ecosystem), and all plant groups and allied organisms (cyanobacteria, fungi, and lichens) with no page charge. BP requires authors to frame their research questions and discuss their results in terms of contemporary problems of plant biology. BP includes the following sections: research papers (up to 20 printing pages), short reports (up to 5 printing pages), broad reviews (up to 30 printing pages), critics and biographies (up to 3 printing pages). Papers of exceptional value can be published as monographs with no page charge; special decision of editorial board is required for such kind of accounts.

Review Procedure and Policy

Manuscripts are reviewed by scholars with expertise in the research area. Reviewers and Editorial Board evaluate manuscripts for innovations in, significant contributions to, and advances in the theoretical or conceptual bases of the subdisciplines of plant biology, and / or novel insights of general relevance to fundamental questions of biology (see for details on the content of reviews). Correspondence and notifications regarding manuscripts will be through e-mail. All reviewer comments and author revisions are handled electronically. Copyediting queries and page proofs are also provided electronically.

Final acceptance of a manuscript is contingent upon strict compliance with Journal requirements. Manuscripts are generally published in the order of receipt, within subject areas, of the final, accepted version or of the corrected proof. Articles that have undergone complete peer review and copyediting, as well as full review by the authors, will be posted as soon as possible.

Submission process

Submit your manuscript by sending it to or Cover letter should be submitted together with manuscript file(s). It should include your formal agreement to publish your results in BP, preferable journal section (research paper, short report, reviews, critics, biographies, monographs), note on interest conflicts with probable reviewers (if desired).

Manuscript Preparation

For manuscript files, MS Word (.doc, docx) format is preferred, but Rich Text Format (.rtf) files are acceptable for review as well. Double-space and left justify the margin of the entire manuscript, including Literature Cited, Appendices, Figure Legends, and Tables, using continuous pagination. Use Arial or Times New Roman typeface with font size 12 points. Leave at least a 2.5-cm margin on all sides. Place a header with page number in upper right corner. Number figures and tables in the order discussed in the text.

Manuscript Content

Place a running head 2.5 cm below the top of the page with the surname of the FIRST author (followed, as appropriate, with the surname of a sole co-author, or with 'et al.' if there are three or more authors) and a shortened (up to 75 characters including spaces) title. The manuscript title for research papers should be specific and informative, conveying the key findings of the research in an active voice. Center boldfaced title written with sentence-style capitalization. In most cases, Latin binomials in a title should be followed by the name of the family and the name of Division for plant allied groups and bryophytes in parentheses. Below the title, list authors: each author’s first name, middle initial, surname. On the next line, give affiliation and unabbreviated address, including e-mail, if desired. If authors have different affiliations and addresses, add a superscript number after each author’s name to indicate the footnoted address. Include another footnote superscript number to indicate the author for correspondence. Below title in English add the Russian translation of titles and names (if you are not Russian speaker, editors will do this).

Abstract should consist of only one paragraph of up to 150 words. References to literature are not allowed in abstracts. Below Abstract in English add the Russian translation (if you are not Russian speaker, editors will do this; the note "translated by editor" will be added).

In the first paragraph of the introduction, include the theoretical or conceptual basis for your work in a context accessible to the diverse botanical readership that BP attracts. Include a summary of conclusions and a takehome message for the generally informed reader in the DISCUSSION.


Second-level headings – (boldface italic).

Third-level headings – (italic).

Avoid footnotes.

Literature Cited
Verify all entries against original sources. Double check that all references in the manuscript text are in the Literature Cited and vice-versa and that they agree in spelling and year.

Include in manuscript file and place immediately after Literature Cited. Additionally give tables in separate files under the names "table1", "table2", etc.

Duplicate the table heads in the manuscript file and place them immediately after Literature Cited.

Figure Legends
Include in manuscript file and place immediately after the Tables (or Literature Cited if there are no Tables). Each figure legend must be complete and informative so that reference to the text is not necessary to understand the content of the figure. Abbreviations should be defined unless they are standard convention. Place legends as separate paragraphs following the Tables.

Include in manuscript file and place immediately after the Figure Legend.

Manuscript formatting

Manuscripts should be written in English. Write in a clear style. Avoid the use of passive voice. The pronouns I (we), me (us), and my (our) should preferably be used and thus reflect the responsibility of the author(s) towards the study. The authors bear full responsibility for the quality of the language. If English is not your first language, make sure that the manuscript is checked by a native English speaker, preferably one familiar with the nomenclature used. All manuscripts will be thoroughly checked by someone proficient in English, and returned for further corrections if found to be linguistically inadequate.

In scientific writing, only two tenses – present and (simple) past – are normally used. So-called 'perfect tenses' (e.g. present perfect) should be avoided. Thus, there are the following 'tense' rules that should be observed:

- established knowledge (previous results) should be given in the present tense;
- description of methods and results in the current paper should be in the (simple) past tense;
- presentation (e.g. 'Fig. 1 shows the studied plant') is given in the present tense;
- attributions (e.g. Jones (1995) reported that ...) are given in the (simple) past tense.

- a hyphen (the shortest "-" with no blank spaces) is used for example in hyphenation and compound words,
- an en-dash ('–'; indicated in a manuscript with two hyphens with no blank space '--') is chiefly used as a minus in subtraction (5 – 2, same as five minus two; NOTE: spaces before and after the dash) or in ranges of values or dates (2–5 same as from two to five or between two and five; NOTE: no spaces before and after the dash).

Quotation marks
- use only strait single and double quotation marks, such as "What a beautiful day" or symbol 'Ψ'. Avoid to use quotation marks in other forms, like «What a beautiful day» or symbol ‘Ψ’.

- always use decimal points, not commas;
- always use leading zeros in decimal fractions;
- in long numerals (five and more digits), the digits should be marked off in groups of three by spaces (not commas!), starting from the left (e.g., 15 369).

- One-letter symbols (normal, in subscript or superscript) representing numerical values (mathematical or statistical variables) must always be italicized;
- multi-letter symbols (normal, in subscript or superscript) representing numerical values (mathematical or statistical variables) are never italicized;
- usage of a multiplication symbol is not recommended. If, however, its presence in an equation is required for reasons of clarity please use ‘x’ instead of a dot;
- other symbols (abbreviations) are not italicized.

- Latin names of genera and lower taxa (e.g., Bryum argenteum).
- Words which are originally not English (e.g., in vitro) with an exception for abbreviated words (e.g., cf., etc.).

Transliteration to Roman alphabet must be used in writing the Cyrillic personal names, geographical names, names of administrative units, Cyrillic journal and book names. There are several ways of transliteration of Cyrillic into Roman. None is necessarily more ‘correct’ that another, but it is important to be consistent, to be aware of system as such. For this purposes all authors are strongly requested to use the ‘Library of Congress’ system modified by Cambridge University. One advantage of ‘Modified LC’ transliteration is that it is now used by all major libraries in the UK and the USA, so that familiarity with this system makes it easier to find books, especially in electronic catalogues. The authors are strictly requested to use the following characters for writing the Cyrillic names.

Cyrillic Belarusian Bulgarian Russian Serbian Ukrainian
Аа a a a a a
Бб b b b b b
Вв v v v v v
Гг h g g g g
Ґґ g g g
Дд d d d d d
Ђђ du
Ее e e e e e
Ёё yo yo
Єє ye
Жж zh zh zh zh zh
Зз z z z z z
Ии i i i i y
i i
Її yi
Йй i i i i
Јј y
Кк k k k k k
Лл l l l l l
Љљ lli
Мм m m m m m
Нн n n n n n
Њњ ni
Оо o o o o o
Пп p p p p p
Рр r r r r r
Сс s s s s s
Тт t t t t t
Ћћ tch
Уу u u u u u
Ўў w
Фф f f f f f
Хх h h h h h
Цц ts ts ts ts ts
Чч ch ch ch ch ch
Џџ dzh
Шш sh sh sh sh sh
Щщ shch sht shch shch shch
Ъъ a "
Ыы y y
Ьь ' ' ' '
Ээ e e
Юю yu yu yu yu
Яя ya ya ya ya

Only SI system units should be used (with some exceptions e.g., 1 μm, not 10-6 m).

Dates should be written according to the following format: day.month.year (e.g., 18.12.1972, NOT December 18, 1972). Years should never be abbreviated (e.g. 2003 not 03).

Abbreviations and acronyms
Each abbreviated word should end in a full stop (e.g., Professor = Prof., Volume = Vol. species nova = sp. nov.). There is no punctuation used in acronyms unless the English grammar rules dictate otherwise.

Geographic nomenclature
Always use internationally recognized and existing names. In questionable cases, refer to the Times Atlas of the World or Merriam-Webster's Geographic Dictionary to make sure that a name you intend to use is listed in their indexes, and its spelling is correct. Use of coordinates (latitude and longitude) is strongly recommended.

Geographic nomenclature

Always use internationally recognized and existing names. In questionable cases, refer to the Times Atlas of the World or Merriam-Webster's Geographic Dictionary to make sure that a name you intend to use is listed in their indexes, and its spelling is correct. Use of coordinates (latitude and longitude) is strongly recommended.


Nomenclature for all extant and extinct species conform to the current International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Taxonomic authorities are given at first mention in the text.

Genetic Analyses

Supporting genetic information, such as DNA, RNA, or protein sequences, be submitted to an appropriate data bank, such as GenBank/EMBL. Alignments used to produce phylogenies must be submitted to TreeBase or to BP to be published as an online supplement with the paper.

Literature citations in text

- Cite references in chronological order (oldest first); within a given year, order them alphabetically (e.g., Malashkina et al. 1999, 2006, Ignatov & Ivanova 2007, Brown 2007, Krassilov 2005, 2008);
- Single author: Jones (2008) or (Jones 2008). Two authors: Cherdantseva & Bardunov (2008) or (Cherdantseva & Bardunov 2008). More than two authors: Krestov et al. (2008) or (Krestov et al. 2008);
- cite all references in Latin alphabet symbols;
- manuscripts accepted for publication but not yet published: Petrov (in print) or (Petrov, in print). Include 'In print' citations in LITERATURE CITED;
- unpublished data and manuscripts (e.g., submitted, in prep.) and personal communication: (A.I. Petrov, Institution, unpublished data [or unpublished manuscript or personal observation]), permission. These are not included in LITERATURE CITED.

References listed in LITERATURE CITED

- List citations in alphabetical order by author. Single-author titles precede multi-authored titles by the same senior author, regardless of date;
- list works by the same author(s) chronologically despite the language of publication, beginning with earliest date of publication. Spell out all author(s)' names. Use "a", "b" (determined alphabetically) for works with the same author(s) and year citation;
- for Latin letter using languages cite reference as in original (unless translation is preferable for rare languages, e.g. for Polish); for Cyrillic languages reference must include both original and translated title in the style presented below (for rare languages, such as Serbian, etc. use English translation only); for Arabian and Hieroglyphic languages cite reference in English translation;
- for multi-authored works, list the first seven authors and then "et al." – unless there are only eight authors and then list all eight;
- use only full journal titles as indicated in the journal itself.

Article in a journal:

Root, H.T. & B. McCune 2010. Forest floor lichen and bryophyte communities in thinned Pseudotsuga menziesiiTsuga heterophylla forests. The Bryologist 113(3):619–630.

Cherdantseva, V.Ya. 2010. Moss species new and rare to Russia from Mednii Island (Commander Islands). Botanicheskii Zhurnal 95(1):85–92 (in Russian with English summary). [Черданцева В.Я. 2010. Новые и редкие для России виды мхов с острова Медный (Командорские острова) // Ботанический журнал. Т. 95, № 1. С. 85–92].


Schofield, W.B. 1992. Some common mosses of British Columbia. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, 394 pp.

Belkina, O.A., N.A. Konstantinova & V.A. Kostina 1991. Flora of higher plants in Lovozero Mountains. Nauka, Saint-Petersburg, 205 pp. (in Russian). [Белкина О.А., Константинова Н.А., Костина В.А. 1991. Флора высших растений Ловозерских гор. Санкт-Петербург: Наука. 205 с.].

Chapter in a publication:

Fischer, E. 2009. Protracheophyta (Horneophytpsida), Tracheophyta p.p.: Rhyniophytina, Lycophytina, "Trimerophytina", Moniliformopses ("Pteridophyta"), Radiatopses (Progymnospermopsida). In: Syllabus of Plant Families, 13-th edition, (W. Frey, ed.), pp. 264–395, Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, Stuttgart.

Krassilov, V.A. 1976. The role of Bering Land connections in the formation of the Cenozoic floras of East Asia. In: Beringia in Cenozoic, (V.L. Kontrimavichus, ed.), pp. 129–134, Dal'nevostochnyi Nauchnyi Tsentr Rossiiskoi akademii nauk, Vladivostok (in Russian with English abstract). [Красилов В.А. 1976. Роль берингийских связей в формировании кайнозойской флоры Восточной Азии и Северной Америки // Берингия в Кайнозое / под ред. В.Л. Контримавичюса. Владивосток: ДВНЦ РАН. С. 129–134].

Online document:

Keane, T.M., T.J. Naughton & J.O. McInerney 2004. ModelGenerator: amino acid and nucleotide substitution model selection. Available from: Last accessed 11.09.2014.


Tables need to be formatted using the Table feature in Word or in a spreadsheet such as Excel. Number tables with Arabic numerals followed by a period. Capitalize first word of title; all others, except proper nouns, are lowercase; spell out names of genera and abbreviations on first mention. If the use of color in a table is essential, please contact the Editorial Office at or


If voucher and gene accession information support the study, list these in Appendix 1, which will be published in the print and online versions. Provide an appendix title, and a sentence-style row of headings for the data. For each taxon sampled, include specimen voucher information and / or gene accession numbers, separated by commas.

Additional appendices may be included. BP encourages online-only publication of extensive appendices, as well as other supplemental materials that support the article but are best presented electronically.

Figures / Illustrations

Upload as separate files (do not include in the manuscript file).

Figures should be comprehensible without reference to the main text.

Figures should be prepared exclusively with black-and-white or grey-scale settings unless they are meant to be printed in color. NOTE that different colors may produce the same shade of grey when printed in black and white.

TIFF format is preferred for color and black and white photographs, drawings, and graphs.

Prepare figures at the final size desired: 1 column (8.9 cm), 1.5 columns (12.7–15.3 cm), or 2 columns (18.4 cm) wide and less than the length of the page (23 cm) high. Figures, drawings and photographs must always be referred to as "Fig.", followed by a number.

Refer to figures parenthetically; e.g. '... (Fig. 1)'. 'Fig. 1 shows ...' type statements should always be avoided when referring to figures presenting results.

Avoid fancy designs (especially 3D).

Use the same font in all figures and within a figure. Arial is recommended.

Freehand lettering is unacceptable.

The axes in graphs should always be named and units, if needed, should be given in parentheses.

Axes titles should be placed parallel to the respective axis.

Relate the size of letters, the thickness of lines (preferably uniform for all figure items), and the size of other parts of a figure, to the size of the figure itself.

All figures should be referred to in the text in the proper numerical order (e.g., the first reference to Fig. 2 cannot precede the first reference to Fig. 1).

Low-resolution files may be initially uploaded / submitted for the review process. Once your manuscript has been tentatively accepted, printer-quality (high-resolution) figures are required.

Reprints and pdf files

BP provides authors with one hard copy of current issue of the journal and *.pdf file of the article, for personal use. Additional reprints are extra charge. Please address your questions on this item to editorial secretary.

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