The invasive species of Kamchatka's flora|
Olga CHERNYAGINA1, Lisa STRECKER2
1 Kamchatka Branch of Pacific institute of Geography FEB RAS, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia
2 Department of Anthropology, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, USA
In the flora of Kamchatka peninsula there are 1200 known species and subspecies
of plants. In the “Catalogue of Kamchatka’s Flora” (2004) 183 of them are adventive.
For some years past we observed that some of these species settled in the
southern part of Kamchatka successfully. In Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and in the
surrounding settlements Impatiens balsamina L., Knautia arvensis (L.) Coult., Pilosella
aurantiaca (L.) F. Schultz et Sch. Bip., Pilosella × floribunda (Wimm. et
Grab.) Fries, Tussilago farfara L. and Arctium lappa L. form the monodominant
communities in waste areas most conspicuously at flowering time. Notably, in
1980’s all these species was not registered in the Kamchatkan flora. In 2010 we
recorded Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden in Kamchatka for the first time. This
species occurs as an extensive weed on the southern slopes of the maritime area
of the town and takes up wide areas in the Valley of the Paratunka river, where
the species became naturalized on the warm soils near the reservoirs, chinks
and pipelines, which are typical for these districts, where water of the Paratunka
geothermal layer is used for house-heating, greenhouse-heating and balneology.
The question about the potential naturalization of these widely dispersed species
near the hot springs of Kamchatka and their further expansion across the whole
peninsula is already reviewed in scientific literature. Heracleum sosnowskyi is the
first and unique example, that confirms this supposition. Formerly we repeatedly
noted, that carried (by men or by birds) to the hot springs species don’t leave the
warm soils near the springs and don’t invade the peninsula (although there are
active species like Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.). The distribution of the adventive
species within the peninsula should be logically connected with expanding
road networks and with people’s activities of the plots of land attached to households.
Already we know of the rapid expansion of a number of species that are
traditionally grown in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky for ornamental purposes (Lupinus
polyphyllus Lindl., Symphytum caucasicum Bieb., Solidago ñanadensis L.).
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