Botanica Pacifica

Survey Paper

Botanica Pacifica. A journal of plant science and conservation Preprint
Article first published online: 31 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.17581/bp.2016.05107

Vegetation comparison between the Russian Far East and the Taisetsu Mountains, central Hokkaido, northern Japan

Susumu Okitsu

Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, 648 Matsudo, Matsudo-City 271-8510 Japan

This study compares the vegetation types of the Russian Far East and those of the Taisetsu range of Hokkaido, in order to clarify the vertical pattern of mountain vegetation belts in relation to the horizontal distribution of vegetation types in the Russian Far East. The Russian Far East consists of two zones, cool-temperate and boreal, and of four sectors, namely continental, maritime, oceanic and extreme-oceanic. Each combination of zone and sector produces a different vegetation type peculiar to that combination. The Taisetsu mountains are located in central Hokkaido (northern Japan) and have vegetation that corresponds, geographically, to that of the southernmost part of the Russian Far East. The vertical distribution on the mountain consists of six vegetation types (from lower upward): Quercus crispula–Acer mono–Tilia japonica forest, Abies sachalinensis–deciduous broadleaf mixed forest, Picea jezoensis–Abies sachalinensis forest, Betula ermanii forest, Pinus pumila thicket and wind-exposed dwarf scrub. Precise comparison of the species composition and vegetation structure in the two regions reveals that the vegetation types of Taisetsu include all six vegetation types in the Russian Far East, although the geographical location of Taisetsu would not suggest complete correspondence with all the zonal and sectoral types of the Russian Far East. The strong winter wind and heavy snowfall of Taisetsu promote this inconsistency, giving it a vertical zonation that is quite unique in its convergence toward all the possible zonal-sectoral combinations in the Russian Far East.

Окицу С. Сравнение растительности российского Дальнего Востока и гор Дайсецу, центральный Хоккайдо, северная Япония. Проведен сравнительный анализ типов растительности российского Дальнего Востока и горного массива Дайсецу на о-ве Хоккайдо с целью установления соотношений между структурой вертикальной поясности горной растительности и горизонтальным распределением растительности на российском Дальнем Востоке. Южная часть Дальнего Востока России включает прохладно-умеренную и бореальную зоны и четыре сектора: континентальный, приморский, океанический и экстремально-океанический. Каждой комбинации зоны и сектора соответствует определенная единица растительности. Горы Дайсецу расположены в центральной части Хоккайдо (северная Япония) и имеют растительность, которая географически соответствует растительности южной части Дальнего Востока России. Горные пояса представлены шестью типами растительности (снизу вверх): широколиственный лес из Quercus crispula, Acer mono и Tilia japonica; смешанный широколиственно-пихтовый лес с Abies sachalinensis, пихтово-еловый лес из Picea jezoensis и Abies sachalinensis, лес из Betula ermanii, заросли Pinus pumila и ветробойные кустарничковые тундры. Сравнение видового состава и структуры растительности в двух регионах показывает, что типы растительности Дайсецу и российского Дальнего Востока в целом сходны, однако особое географическое положение Дайсецу является причиной существенных отличий растительности горных поясов от аналогичных зональных и секторных единиц растительности Дальнего Востока России. Сильные зимние ветры и снегопады в горах Дайсецу являются главными причинами этой несогласованности, определяя уникальную вертикальную поясность.

Keywords: sector, boreal zone, cool-temperate zone, vegetation convergence, vertical zonation, сектор, бореальная зона, прохладно-умеренная зона, конвергенция растительности, вертикальная зональность



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