Botanica Pacifica

Research paper

Botanica Pacifica. A journal of plant science and conservation Preprint
Article first published online: 06 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.17581/bp.2016.05101

Anti-lipoxygenase, Radical Scavenging and Antimicrobial Activities of Lichen Species of Genus Heterodermia (Physciaceae)

Bhaskar C. Behera, Mangesh V. Morey & Subhash B. Gaikwad

Agharkar Research Institute, G.G. Agarkar Road, Pune – 411004, India

The aim of the research is to explore antilipoxygenase, radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the selected lichen species of genus Heterodermia (Physciaceae). The species extract have shown concentration dependent lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition. Fifty percent (IC50) LOX inhibition was obtained by H. diademata, H. flabellata, H. antillarum and H. incana with 0.123, 0.153, 0.160, 0.150 mg/ml respectively; which is smaller than the synthetic antioxidant BHA and BHT. Only the extract of H. diademata showed IC50, 0.123 mg/ml is equal to LOX inhibitor Indomethicin. The LOX inhibition kinetics with respect to the lichen extract resulted different mode of inhibition. Competitive inhibition was found towards LOX by H. albicans, H. antillarum; uncompetitive inhibition by H. diademata and noncompetitive inhibition showed by H. angustiloba, H. flabellata, H. incana, H. isidiophora and H. pseudospeciosa. These species extract have also showed ≤50 % radical scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate extract of H. diademata, H. angustiloba, H. albicans and H. isidiophora showed the strong antimicrobial activity against most of the tested microorganisms at concentration ranging from 0.232 mg/ml to 0.591 mg/ml. These findings suggest that these lichen species of genus Heterodermia can be used as new bioresources for the natural lipoxygenase inhibitor with antimicrobial and radical scavenging features.

Бехера Б.С., Мори М.В., Гайквад С.Б. Антилипоксигеназа, радикальная очистка и антимикробная активность лишайников рода Heterodermia (Physciaceae). Цель исследования – антилипоксигеназа, радикальная очистка и антимикробная активность этилацетатного экстракта видов лишайников рода Heterodermia (Physciaceae). Экстрактам видов рода свойсвенно липоксигеназное ингибирование (LOX), зависящее от концентрации. Пятидесятипроцентное (IC50) ингибирование LOX отмечалось у видов H. diademata, H. flabellata, H. antillarum и H. incana при концентрациях 0,123 0,153, 0,160 и 0,150 мг/мл соответственно; что меньше, чем у синтетических антиоксидантов BHA и BHT. Только экстракт H. diademata показал IC50 при концентрации 0,123 мг/мл равным LOX ингибитора индометацин. Кинетика LOX ингибирования экстрактов разных видов лишайников показывает разный режим ингибирования. Конкурентное ингибирование LOX отмечено у H. albicans и H. antillarum; неконкурентое – у H. diademata; отсутствие конкуренции характерно для H. angustiloba, H. flabellata, H. incana, H. isidiophora и H. pseudospeciosa. Экстракты этих видов также показали пятидесятипроцентную активность радикальной очистки. Этилацетатные экстракты H. diademata, H. angustiloba, H. albicans и H. isidiophora показали сильную антимикробную активность в отношении большинства протестированных микроорганизмов в концентрациях от 0,232 до 0,591 мг/мл. Результаты показывают, что виды лишайников Heterodermia могут быть использованы в качестве нового биоресурса природной липоксигеназы с антимикробными и очистительными свойствами.

Keywords: Heterodermia, lipoxygenase inhibition, antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, липооксигиназное ингибирование, антиоксидант, антимикробная активность



Baladrin M.F., Klocke J.A. & Wurtele E.S. 1985. Natural plant chemicals: sources of industrial and medicinal plants. Science. 228:1154–1160. CrossRef

Barlow S.M. 1990. Toxicological aspects of antioxidants used as food additives. In: Food Antioxidants (Hudson, B.J.F. ed.), pp. 253–308, Elsevier Applied Science, London, UK. CrossRef

Behera B.C., Verma N., Sonone A. & Makhija U.V. 2005a. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of lichen Usnea ghattensis in-vitro. Biotechnology Letters 27:991–995. CrossRef

Behera B.C., Verma N., Sonone A. & Makhija U.V. 2005b. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of the cultured mycobiont of a lichen Usnea ghattensis. Phytotherapy Research 19:58–64. CrossRef

Behera B.C., Mahadik N.D. & Morey M.V. 2012. Antioxidative and cardiovascular-protective activities of metabolite usnic acid and psoromic acid produced by lichen species Usnea complanata under submerged fermentation. Pharmaceutical Biology 50:968–979. CrossRef

Blois M.S. 1958. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 26: 1199-1200. CrossRef

Conner D.E. 1993. Naturally occurring compounds. In: Antimicrobials in foods. 2nd ed. (Davidson, P.M. & A.L. Branen, eds.), pp. 441–468, Marcel Dekker Inc, New York.

Crittenden P.D. & Porter N. 1991. Lichen forming fungi: Potential sources of novel metabolites. Trends in Biotechnology 9:409–414. CrossRef

Culberson C.F. & Kristinsson H.D. 1972. A standardized method for the identification of lichen products. Journal of Chromatography 45:85–93.

Gaikwad S.B., Verma N., Sharma B.O. & Behera B.C. 2014. Growth promoting effects of some lichen metabolites on probiotic bacteria. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51(10):2624–2631. CrossRef

Govindappa M., Sadanand T.S., Channabasava R. & Raghavendra V.B. 2011. In vitro antiinflammatory, lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth. International Journal of Pharma and Biosciences 2(2):275–285.

Iassonova D.R., Johnson L.A., Hammond E.G. & Beattie S.E. 2009. Evidence of an enzymatic source of off flavors in "lipoxygenase-null" soybeans. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 86(1):59–64. CrossRef

Kelavkar U.P., Cohen C., Kamitani H., Eling T.E. & Badr K.F. 2000. Concordant induction of 15-lipoxygenase-1 and mutant p53 expression in human prostate adenocarcinoma: correlation with gleason staging. Carcinogenesis 21(10):1777–1787. CrossRef

Kelavkar U.P., Nixon J.B., Cohen C., Dillehay D., Eling T.E. & Badr K.F. 2001. Overexpression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells increases tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis 22(11):1765–1773. CrossRef

Mahadik N.D., Morey M.V., Behera B.C., Makhija U.V. & Naik D.G. 2011. Cardiovascular-protective, and antimicrobial properties of natural thallus of lichen Usnea complanata. Latin American Journal of Pharmacy 30: 220–228.

Manojlović N., Ranković B., Kosanić M., Vasiljevićc P., Stanojković T. 2012. Chemical composition of three Parmelia lichens and antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of some their major metabolites. Phytomedicine 19: 1166–1172. CrossRef

Miller N.J., Diplock A.T., Rice-Evans C.A. 1995. Evaluation of the total antioxidant as a marker of the deterioration of apple juice on storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43: 1794–1801. CrossRef

Mitrović T., Stamenković S., Cvetković V., Nikolić M., Tošić S., Stojičić D. 2011. Lichens as source of versatile bioactive compounds. Biologica Nyssana 2:1–6.

Molnar K. & Farkas E. 2010. Current results on biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites: a review. Journal of Biosciences 65:157–173. CrossRef

Muller K. 2001. Pharmaceutically relevant metabolites from lichens. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 56:9–16. CrossRef

National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. 1993. Performance Standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility test. M2-A5. Approved Standard NCCLS Publication, Vilionova, PA, USA.

Rackova L., Oblozinsky M., Kostalova D., Kettmann V. & Bezakova L. 2007. Free radical scavenging activity and lipoxygenase inhibition of Mahonia aquifolium extract and isoquinoline alkaloids. Journal of Inflammation 4:15–21. CrossRef

Ranković B., Mišić M. & Sukdolak S. 2007a. Antimicrobial activity of the lichens Cladonia furcata, Parmelia caperata, Parmelia pertusa, Hypogymnia physodes and Umbilicaria polyphylla. British Journal of Biomedical Science 64:143–148.

Ranković B., Mišić M. & Sukdolak S. 2007b. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the lichens Lasallia pustulata, Parmelia sulcata, Umbilicaria crustulosa and Umbilicaria cylindrica. Microbiology 76:723–727. CrossRef

Serpen A. & Gokmen V. 2007. Effect of β-carotene on soybean lipoxygenase activity: kinetic studies. European Food Research and Technology 224:743–748. CrossRef

Shah N.C. 2014. Lichens of commercial importance in India. The Scitech Journal 1(2):32–36.

Shinde U.A., Kulkarni K.R., Phadke A.S., Nair A.M., Mungantiwar A.A., Dikshit V.J. & Saraf M.N. 1999. Mast cell stabilizing and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud. wood oil. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 37:258–261.

Sircar J.C., Schwende C.F. & Johnson E.A. 1983. Soybean lipoxygenase inhibition by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Prostaglandins 25:393–396. CrossRef

Stocker-Worgotter E. 2008. Metabolic diversity of lichen forming ascomycetous fungi: culturing, polyketide and shikimate metabolite production and PKS genes. Natural Product Reports 25:188–200. CrossRef

Taylor T.N., Hass H., Remy W. & Kerp H. 1995. The oldest fossil lichen. Nature 378: 244. CrossRef

Theerakulkait C. & Barrett D.M. 1995. Lipoxygenase in sweet corn germ: isolation and physicochemical properties. Journal of Food Science 60:1029–1033. CrossRef

Verma N., Behera B.C. & Sharma B.O. 2012. Glucosidase inhibitory and radical scavenging properties of lichen metabolites Salazinic Acid, Sekikaic Acid and Usnic Acid. Hacettepe Journal of Biology and Chemistry 40(1):7–21.

Verma N., Behera B.C., Parizadeh H. & Sharma B.O. 2011. Bactericidal activity of some lichen secondary compounds of Cladonia ochrochlora, Parmotrema nilgeherrensis and Parmotrema sancti-angelii. International Journal of Drug Development and Research 3:222–232.

Verma N., Behera B.C. & Makhija U.V. 2008. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of a lichen Usnea ghattensis in vitro. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 151:167–181. CrossRef

Zhou B., Miao A., Yang L. & Liu Z. 2005. Antioxidative effects of flavonols and their glycosides against the free-radical induced peroxidation of linoleic acid in solution and in micelles. Chemistry – A European Journal 11:680–691. CrossRef

© 2016-2017 Botanica Pacifica