Botanica Pacifica

ss Survey paper

Botanica Pacifica. A journal of plant science and conservation Preprint
Article first published online: 18 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.17581/bp.2015.04203

Acritarch Evidence for an Ediacaran Adaptive Radiation of Fungi

Gregory J. Retallack

Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-1272, U.S.A.

Acritarchs are problematic organic-walled microfossils, traditionally regarded as phytoplankton, but also as cysts of metazoans or mesomycetozoans, and fungi. This review develops criteria for distinguishing these alternatives, and documents fungal features in several Precambrian acritarchs: (1) irregular shape, (2) hyphal attachment, (3) spherical wall protrusions, (4) septate and fused hyphae, (5) multilayered brittle walls that split and detach, (6) large size (>100 μm), and (7) chitin and chitosan composition revealed by FTIR. Large acritarchs with fungal features are common and diverse during the Ediacaran, at the same time as extinct lichenlike Vendobionta. A different assemblage of small acritarchs diversified with the Cambrian evolutionary explosion of algae and metazoans. A fossil record of glomeromycotan fungi back to the Paleoproterozoic (2200 Ma) supports the idea of fungal life on land long before land plants, and an amended version of Pirozynski and Malloch’s mycotrophic origin of early land plants.

Реталлак Г.Дж. Акритархи подтверждают адаптивную радиацию грибов. Акритархи – проблемные микрофоссилии c органическими клеточными стенками, традиционно рассматриваются как фитопланктон, а также как цисты многоклеточных организмов, мезомицетов и грибов. Данный обзор предлагает критерии для различения этих групп организмов и анализ признаков нескольких групп докембрийских акритарх: (1) неправильная форма, (2) крепление гиф (3) сферические выступы клеточных стенок, (4) цельные гифы и гифы с перегородками (5) многослойные хрупкие, расслаивающиеся покровы (6) большой размер (> 100 мкм) и (7) содержание хитина и хитозана, выявляемое инфракрасной спектроксопией. Большие акритархи с признаками грибов обычны и разнообразны в эдиакарской биоте, в то время как лихеноподобные организмы малочисленны. Сообщества небольших акритарх достигли наибольшего разнообразия во время кембрийского эволюционного взрыва водорослей и многоклеточных. Находки окаменелостей гломеромицетов вплоть до палеопротерозоя (2200 млн лет) поддерживают идею распространения жизни на суше в виде грибов задолго до наземных растений, и говорят в пользу версии происхождения ранних наземных растений от микотрофных организмов по Пирозинскому и Маллоку.

Keywords: acritarch, Ediacaran, Glomeromycota, FTIR, wall ultrastructure, акритархи, эдиакарский период, гломеромицеты, инфракрасная спектроскопия, ультраструктура клеточных стенок



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