Botanica Pacifica

Survey paper

Botanica Pacifica. A journal of plant science and conservation 2013. 2(1):3-18.
Article first published online: 30 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.17581/bp.2013.02101

Climate and Regional Composition of Deciduous Forest in Eastern North America and Comparisons with Some Asian Forests

Andrew M. Greller
Queens College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York, Flushing, New York 11367, U.S.A.
Institute of Systematic Botany, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458, U.S.A.

Deciduous Forest in eastern North America occupies a broad thermal range, even when transitional types (conifer-northern hardwoods and southern mixed hardwoods) are excluded. The Bailey System of Bioclimatology reveals differences in Warmth and Temperateness (equability) among syntaxonomic units of the Eastern Deciduous Forest (EDF), specifically the Maple Sub-Zone (northern), the Central Hardwoods Sub-Zone, and the Oak-Pine Sub-Zone (southern). Stations of the Maple Sub-Zone are coldest. Stations of the Oak-Pine Sub-Zone are warmer than most Central Hardwood stations and less temperate. When Mexican, European, west Asian and east Asian deciduous forests are analyzed similarly, by physiognomy, floristic composition, and Warmth and Temperateness of climate, some relationships with the eastern North American deciduous forest sub-zones are evident. In the mountains of eastern Mexico, the nomographed stations of the Mexican Holarctic Dicotyledonous Forest (MHDF) are congruent in Warmth with the Southern Mixed Hardwoods Forest and with the northern coastal stations of the Temperate Broad-Leaved Evergreen Forest (TBEF). Nomographed stations of the deciduous forests of Europe (England to the Balkan Peninsula) are congruent in Warmth with the combined Maple and Central Hardwoods Sub-Zones of EDF. However, the European stations are much more equable than their eastern North American counterparts, and they have many fewer hours of freezing temperatures. There is very little overlap in Temperateness between the nomograph-plotted deciduous forest stations in the two regions, which are separated by the Atlantic Ocean. In western Asia, the few stations of the Colchic-Hyrcanian-Talysch type that were plotted are nearly completely congruent in Warmth with the Oak-Pine Sub-Zone of EDF. However, they are more equable, with higher ratings of Temperateness, than EDF stations at the same Warmth, with one exception. Nomographed stations of the oak (Quercus)-dominated deciduous forests of China and the largely beech (Fagus)-dominated deciduous forests of Japan overlap the EDF Central Hardwoods Sub-Zone in Warmth, with the exception of one southern U. S. station. Japanese deciduous forests and all the northern stations of the EDF Central Hardwoods are congruent in Temperateness as well as Warmth. East Asian forests dominated by a combination of deciduous angiosperms, evergreen angiosperms and evergreen conifers, such as the Mixed Mesophytic Forest of China (MMFC), would appear to have, as their physiognomic counterpart in eastern North America, the Southern Mixed Hardwood Forest (SMHF; strictly, the DC of Greller 1989; in part, the Sou- thern Evergreen Region of E. Lucy Braun). However, MMFC weather stations plotted on Bailey’s nomogram are congruent in Warmth and Temperateness with stations of the Oak-Pine Sub-Zone of the EDF.

Греллер А.M. Климат и состав листопадных лесов востока Северной Америки в сравнении с некоторыми азиатскими лесами. Лиственные леса восточной части Северной Америки характеризуются широким спектром термических условий, даже если не принимать во внимание переходные типы (северные хвойно-широколиственные и южные широколиственные смешанные). Система биоклиматов Бейли показывает различия в теплообеспеченности и умеренности между разными растительными единицами Восточных листопадных лесов (ВЛЛ), и, в частности, между северной подзоной холодных кленовых, средней подзоной широколиственных и южной подзоной более теплых дубово-сосновых лесов. Поскольку аналогичные мексиканские, европейские, западноазиатские и восточноазиатские лиственные леса имеют сходные черты в их физиогномике, видовом составе, отношении к теплу и умеренности климата с восточными Североамериканскими листопадными лесами, можно предположить наличие взаимоотношений. В горах восточной Мексики леса, представленные видами двудольных, по уровню теплообеспеченности сходны с южными смешанными широколиственными лесами и умеренными широколиственными вечнозелеными лесами Североамериканского Северо-Востока. Листопадные леса Европы (от Англии до Балканского полуострова) по теплообеспеченности сходны с листопадными лесами подзон кленовых и широколиственных лесов зоны ВЛЛ. В Западной Азии, биоклиматические показатели области распространения растительности Колхидско-Гирканского типа сходны по тепловым индексам с климатическими условиями дубово-сосновых лесов в подзоне Североамериканских восточных листопадных лесов. Климатические условия дубовых, преимущественно листопадных лесов Китая и, в значительной степени, буковых лесов Японии показали сходство по индексам умеренности и температур с климатическими условиями лесов средней подзоны восточносевероамериканских листопадных лесов. Смешанные леса, представленные в Восточной Азии сочетаниями листопадных и вечнозеленых покрытосеменных и вечнозеленых хвойных деревьев, физиогномически сходны с лесами восточной части Северной Америки в южной подзоне смешанных листопадных лесов (а именно DC по Greller 1989, а также с регионом южных вечнозеленых лесов по Braun). Тем не менее, номограммы Бейли показывают, что смешанные мезофитные леса Китая по количеству тепла и умеренности соответствуют дубово-сосновым лесам восточносевероамериканской подзоны листопадных лесов. (Переведено редколлегией).

Keywords: Deciduous forest, climate, North America, Asia, листопадный лес, климат, Северная Америка, Азия



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