Botanica Pacifica

Survey paper

Botanica Pacifica. A journal of plant science and conservation 2012. 1(1):5-20.
Article first published online: 10 SEN 2012 | DOI: 10.17581/bp.2012.01102

A Comparative Look at Bioclimatic Zonation, Vegetation Types, Tree Taxa and Species Richness in Northeast Asia

Elgene O. Box1 & Kazue Fujiwara2
1 University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
2 Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan

Northeast Asia includes the mainly temperate-deciduous and boreal forest areas of the Russian Far East, Manchuria, northern China, Korea, and northern Japan. In terms of global zonation, the region includes parts of the boreal, cool-temperate and typical-temperate zones, plus polar and the respective mountain belts. Zonation in Russia also recognizes sectoral subdivisions that represent the gradient from the ultra-continental interior to the maritime Pacific areas. Northeast Asia is compared herein with other regions of the Northern Hemisphere, within this zonal framework, in terms of bioclimatic conditions and zonation, vegetation types, main tree taxa, limiting mechanisms and ranges of taxa, and taxon richness. Northeast Asia has greater climatic extremes and climatic diversity, and species richness is generally seen as higher than in comparable areas of eastern North America and Europe. To some extent this results from the separation of Japan, Kamchatka, Sakhalin, and Korea from the East Asian mainland by the large marginal seas. Cool-temperate mixed forests seem strikingly similar in Northeast Asia and northeastern North America, although the extent of the former is truncated in some areas by the sudden appearance of permafrost. Some vegetation types of Northeast Asia are seen as more unique. Several research needs are identified by this cross-continental comparison, especially the need for more complete information on taxon ranges (including full range maps), a common zonation vocabulary, and better climate data. Consideration of the region as a whole also focuses attention on questions of just what really are different species and what factors limit them.

Бокс Э.О., Фудзивара К. Сравнительный обзор биоклиматической зональности, типов растительности, древесных таксонов и видового богатства Северо-Восточной Азии. Северо-Восточная Азия включает умеренные широколиственнолесные и бореальные районы Дальнего Востока России, Маньчжурии, северного Китая, Кореи и северной Японии. В схемах глобального районирования это части бореальной, холодно-умеренной и типичной умеренной зон, а также полярной зоны и соответствующих горных поясов. Российский подход к зонированию предусматривает также секторные подразделения, которые составляют градиент от внутренних континентальных районов к побережьям. В статье представлен сравнительный анализ Северо-Восточной Азии с другими регионами Северного полушария по таким характеристикам как зональная структура, биоклиматы, типы растительности, основные таксоны деревьев и видовое богатство. Для Северо- Восточной Азии, по сравнению с сопоставимыми районами восточной части Северной Америки и Европы, характерны более экстремальные и разнообразные климатические условия и высокое видовое богатство. В какой-то степени это обусловлено изоляцией Японии, Камчатки, Сахалина и Кореи от Азиатского материка большими окраинными морями. Холодно-умеренные смешанные леса Северо-Восточной Азии и северо-востока Северной Америки сходны, хотя распространение первых на север ограничено южным краем вечной мерзлоты. Ряд типов растительности Северо-Восточной Азии уникален. Для понимания организации растительного покрова необходимы сравнительные исследования, более полная информация о распространении таксонов и климате, разработка общего понятийного аппарата зональности. В статье акцентируется внимание на вопросах о различиях видов, формирующих растительный покров разных регионов, и о факторах, ограничивающих их распространение. (Переведено редколлегией).

Keywords: global bioclimatic zonation, temperate zonation, typical temperate climate, vegetation regions, East Asian species ranges, plant species richness, глобальное биоклиматическое зонирование, районирование, типичный умеренный климат, растительный район, Восточная Азия, ареал вида, богатство видов



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